Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming

Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose (1) gender identity, (2) gender expression, or (3) behavior does not conform to that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth. Gender identity refers to a person’s internal sense of being male, female, or something else; gender expression refers to the way a person communicates gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, hairstyles, voice, or body characteristics. While transgender (sometimes called “trans”) is generally a good term to use, it is important to note that not everyone whose appearance or behavior is gender-nonconforming will identify as a transgender person.


MPIPP has developed this fact sheet on the mental health impact of stigma and discrimination on transgender people, their families, and their allies. MPIPP fact sheets generally contain key points of representative research that is cited on the second page.



Shown here are examples of research and reports or surveys that address the psychological impact of stigma, discrimination, and violence toward transgender people. The research shown is generally representative of a larger body of peer-reviewed research.  Please note that not all individuals or families are affected in the same way. Also, most of the reports shown here also have extensive bibliographical references that can be reviewed for a more complete analysis of this topic.

  • Grant, J., Mottit, L., Tanis, J., et al, Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey.  Prepared for the National Center for Transgender Equality, this largest survey of its type ever conducted of 6,450 transgender and gender non-conforming people, documents the reality of the impact of transgender discrimination and stigma.  The Executive Summary is available online at:

The report also has separate breakout data for transgender people of color.  See this webpage for the selections available:

  • Report of the APA Task Force on Gender Identity and Gender Variance.  This comprehensive report by the American Psychological Association, examines current research and offers basic and intermediate clinical information on working with transgender patients.  Available online at:


This list of resources and organizations (in no particular order) is designed to enable our website readers to find other information on the topic being described. Many of the organizations listed here also have resource guides and information available on this topic. MPIPP does not recommend nor endorse organizations by providing helpful links nor can we list programs or projects of political parties.  If you are aware of other resources and links that are non-partisan and appropriate, please use the “contact us” page to send the link for consideration.

Darüber hinaus blicken wir auf den girls’ day bachelorarbeit schreiben lassen kosten 2015 sowie auf unsere doktorandinnenveranstaltung mehr frauen in die wissenschaft zurück.