Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming
Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose (1) gender identity, (2) gender expression, or (3) behavior does not conform to that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth. Gender identity refers to a person’s internal sense of being male, female, or something else; gender expression refers to the way a person communicates gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, hairstyles, voice, or body characteristics. While transgender (sometimes called “trans”) is generally a good term to use, it is important to note that not everyone whose appearance or behavior is gender-nonconforming will identify as a transgender person.
MPIPP FACT SHEETS
MPIPP has developed this fact sheet on the mental health impact of stigma and discrimination on transgender people, their families, and their allies. MPIPP fact sheets generally contain key points of representative research that is cited on the second page.
RESEARCH & REPORTS/SURVEYS
Shown here are examples of research and reports or surveys that address the psychological impact of stigma, discrimination, and violence toward transgender people. The research shown is generally representative of a larger body of peer-reviewed research. Please note that not all individuals or families are affected in the same way. Also, most of the reports shown here also have extensive bibliographical references that can be reviewed for a more complete analysis of this topic.
- Fredricksen-Goldsen, K., Cook-Daniels, L., Kim, H-Y, et al. Physical and Mental Health of Transgender Older Adults: An At-Risk and Underserved Population, Advanced Access published March 27, 2013, The Gerontologist, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnt021. Available online at: http://caringandaging.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Physical-and-mental-health-of-transgender-older-adults-An-at-risk-and-underserved-population.pdf
- Grant, J., Mottit, L., Tanis, J., et al, Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Prepared for the National Center for Transgender Equality, this largest survey of its type ever conducted of 6,450 transgender and gender non-conforming people, documents the reality of the impact of transgender discrimination and stigma. The Executive Summary is available online at: http://transequality.org/PDFs/Executive_Summary.pdf
The report also has separate breakout data for transgender people of color. See this webpage for the selections available: http://transequality.org/Resources/index.html
- Report of the APA Task Force on Gender Identity and Gender Variance. This comprehensive report by the American Psychological Association, examines current research and offers basic and intermediate clinical information on working with transgender patients. Available online at: http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/reports/gender-identity.aspx#
HELPFUL RESOURCES & ORGANIZATIONS
This list of resources and organizations (in no particular order) is designed to enable our website readers to find other information on the topic being described. Many of the organizations listed here also have resource guides and information available on this topic. MPIPP does not recommend nor endorse organizations by providing helpful links nor can we list programs or projects of political parties. If you are aware of other resources and links that are non-partisan and appropriate, please use the “contact us” page to send the link for consideration.
- Answers to Your Questions About Transgender People, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression. Available online from the American Psychological Association at: http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/transgender.aspx
- Transgender Today. From the website of the American Psychological Association at: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/04/transgender.aspx
- Transgender terminology: It’s Complicated. From the website of the American Psychological Association at: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/04/complicated.aspx
- National Center for Transgender Equality. Website: http://transequality.org/About/about.html
- American Psychological Association. Website for transgender issues: http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/programs/transgender/
- Council on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression of the Council for Social Work Education. Website: http://www.cswe.org/cms/15548.aspx
- World Professional Association for Transgender Health. Website: http://www.wpath.org
- Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. Website: http://www.sexscience.org