LGBT People of Color
LGBT people of color comprise diverse groups of individuals and communities connected by many aspects of identity, including race, ethnicity, national heritage, sexual orientation, loving relationship patterns, gender identity, and gender expression. There are several reasons to highlight social science information about LGBT people of color, and one of the most striking reasons is the diversity of ways the multiple levels of inequality are experienced.
MPIPP RESEARCH REVIEWS
MPIPP has prepared the following reviews of research that include footnotes and annotative bibliographies:
RESEARCH & REPORTS/SURVEYS
Shown here are examples of research and reports or surveys that address the mental health of LGBT people of color. The research shown is generally representative of a larger body of peer-reviewed research. Please note that not all individuals or families are affected in the same way. Also, most of the reports shown here also have extensive bibliographical references that can be reviewed for a more complete analysis of this topic.
- Balsam, K.F., Huang, B., Fieland, K.C., Simoni, J.M., & Walters, K.L. (2004). Culture, Trauma, and Wellness: A Comparison of Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Two-Spirit Native Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 287-301. Access at: http://nace.samhsa.gov/OpenDocument.aspx?Document=226&DocCheck=i3UreIKmue5aZqaAyhnc
- Boston Public Health Commission on LGBT Health. (2002). Double Jeopardy: How Racism and Homophobia Impact the Health of Black and Latino Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Communities. http://ebookbrowse.com/double-jeopardy-how-racism-and-homophobia-impact-the-health-of-black-and-latino-lgbt-communities-doc-d46815572
- Cochran, S.D., & Mays, V.M. (2006). Estimating prevalence of mental and substance-using disorders among lesbians and gay men from existing national health data. In Sexual orientation and mental health, edited by A. M. Omoto and H.S. Kurtzman. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Pp. 143–165.
- Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Ortega, A. N., Alegria, M., & Takeuchi, D. (2007). Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. The Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, (75)5, 785-794.
- Huang, Y. P., Brewster, M. E., Moradi, B., Goodman, M. B., Wiseman, M., & Mennicke, A.(2010). Content analysis of literature about LGB of Color: 1998-2007. The Counseling Psychologist, 38, 363-396.
- Human Rights Campaign (HRC). (2009). At the Intersection: Race, Sexuality and Gender.Access the report at: http://www.hrc.org/resources/entry/at-the-intersection-race-sexuality-and-gender
- Kertzner, R. M., Meyer, I. H., Frost, D. M., & Stirratt, M. J. (2009). Social and psychological well-being in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: The effects of race, gender, age, and sexual identity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. doi: 10.1037/a0016848 http://www.columbia.edu/~im15/files/wellbeing.pdf
- Krehely, J. (2009). How to Close the LGBT Health Disparities Gap: Disparities by Race and Ethicity. Center for American Progress. Access the report at: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/report/2009/12/21/7048/how-to-close-the-lgbt-health-disparities-gap/
- McCabe, S.E., Bostwick, W.B., Hughes, T.L., West, B.T., & Boyd, C.J. (2010). The Relationship Between Discrimination and Substance Use Disorders Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(10), 1946-1952.
- McLaughlin, K.A., Hatzenbuehler, M.L., & Keyes, K.M. (2010). Responses to Discrimination and Psychiatric Disorders Among Black, Hispanic, Female, and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1477-1484.
- Meyer, I. H., Dietrich, J. D., & Schwartz, S. (2008). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1004–1006.
- Moradi, B., Wiseman, M.C., DeBlaere, C., Goodman, M.B., Sarkees, A., Brewster, M.E., & Huang, Y.P. (2010). LGB of color and white individuals’ perceptions of heterosexist stigma, internalized homophobia, and outness: Comparisons of levels and links. The Counseling Psychologist38(3), 397-424. doi: 10.1177/0011000009335263. Access online version at: http://tcp.sagepub.com/content/38/3/397
- Movement Advancement Project, Family Equality Council, & Center for American Progress. (October, 2011). All Children Matter: How Legal and Social Inequalities Hurt LGBT Families. Access the report at: http://www.lgbtmap.org/file/all-children-matter-full-report.pdf
- Mustanski, B.S., Garofalo, R., & Emerson, E.M. (2010). Mental health disorders, psychological distress, and suicidality in a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. American Journal of Public Health, 100 (12):2426–2432
- Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz., & Sanchez, J. (2009) Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, (123)1, 346-352. (doi: 10.5142/peds.2007-3524)
- Stirratt, M. J., Meyer, I. H., Ouellette, S. C., & Gara, M. A. (2008). Measuring identity multiplicity and intersectionality: Hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS) of sexual, racial, and gender identities. Self and Identity, 7(1), 89-111.
- Walters, K.L., Simoni, J.M. (2002). Reconceptualizing Native women’s health: An “indigenist” stress-coping model. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 520-524.
HELPFUL RESOURCES AND ORGANIZATIONS
This list of resources and organizations (in no particular order) is designed to enable our website readers to find other information on the topic being described. Many of the organizations listed here also have resource guides and information available on this topic. MPIPP does not recommend nor endorse organizations by providing helpful links nor can we list programs or projects of political parties. If you are aware of other resources and links that are non-partisan and appropriate, please use the “contact us” page to send the link for consideration.
- Talking about LGBT Equality with African Americans. This booklet, from the Movement Advancement Project, offers approaches for effective conversations that focus on shared concerns about hate crimes, bullying in schools, and employment and housing discrimination. Available online at: http://www.lgbtmap.org/talking-about-lgbt-equality-with-african-americans
- Talking about LGBT Equality with Latinos and Hispanics. This guide to effective conversations focuses on four key shared values – family, respect, faith, and opposition to discrimination – that form the foundation of effective conversations with Latino audiences. The guide also provides approaches for discussions that build support for marriage: a focus on shared values of family and fairness, and the importance of illustrating the harms of denying marriage to gay couples. Available in English and Spanish online at: http://www.lgbtmap.org/talking-about-lgbt-equality-with-latinos-and-hispanics
- PFLAG Native American Resources. PFLAG (Parents, Friends and Family of Lesbians and Gays) has a list of LGBT resources for Native American. Available online at: http://community.pflag.org/page.aspx?pid=470